CONCLUSION


CONCLUSION



The Farmington MPO Access Management Plan provides useful techniques to improve safety of collectors and arterials by controlling the number of access points to these roadways. These techniques preserve the capacity of regional roadways as well as the functionality of the various road classifications. These policies and standards will be applicable to new roads and should also be implemented wherever feasible as existing roads are retrofitted or reconstructed. Adoption of the plan at the regional and local levels will ensure access management is consistent among the four local governments.

SECTION 4: ROAD SECTIONS


4.1) Introduction


The dimensions in the following tables summarize typical road sections, as outlined starting on the next page. The road sections illustrate the various elements expected to be constructed at full-build out. Multi-modal features are included wherever feasible. The road sections were developed by focusing on the access function of each classification. It is also important to ensure that the road sections will enable the road class to serve its intended function and purpose.

The road sections are shown at full build-out. This takes into account the transition of a road over time (i.e. a road starts out as a rural arterial, but as development occurs around it, the road incorporates the elements of an urban arterial). It will be critical for the entities to secure sufficient ROW for future expansion and/or modification as well as to accommodate the various modes of transportation.

4.2) Urban Sections


Urban Sections Classification Summary

(All dimensions in feet)


NUM. LANES ROW SIDEWALK BUFFER ZONE BIKE LANE TRAVEL LANE CURB/ GUTTER MEDIAN/ TURN LN PARK/ EMER. LN
Urban 4 100 6 5 5 12 2 14 None
Principal Arterial (UPA)








Urban Minor Arterial (UMA) 4 100 6 5 5 12 2 14 None
2 80 6 4 5 12 2 14 None
Urban Collector (UCol) 2 80 6 4 5 12 2 14 None
UCol (Residential) 2 60 5 4 5 12 2 None None
UCol (Residential or Commercial) 2 80 5 4 5 12 2 None 10
UCol (Residential or Commercial) 2 80 5 4 5 12 2 12 None

NOTE: If an Urban Principal Arterial, Urban Minor Arterial, or Urban Collector includes a shared use path, a 11’ width is recommended (10’ is minimum). See Section 8 for shared use path guidelines.

URBAN PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS/ URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Bike lanes are presented as an on-street facility.
• Sidewalks are separated from travel lanes by a buffer strip.


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Bicyclists and pedestrians share a path separate from travel lanes.
• A hybrid of on-street and off-street bicycle/pedestrian facilities is shown as a possible option.
• Pavement material for the sidepath can vary.

URBAN PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS/ URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS (continued)


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS





• When separate from the travel lanes, the location of the bike lane, sidewalk, and buffer can vary.
• Pavement material for the walking and biking facilities can vary.

URBAN PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS/ URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Bicyclists and pedestrians share a path separate from travel lanes.
• Pavement material for the sidepath can vary.


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Bike lanes are presented as an on-street facility.
• Sidewalks are separated from travel lanes by a buffer strip.

URBAN PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS/ URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS




URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• This section would be typically found in a residential neighborhood
• Bike lanes are presented as an on-street facility.
• Sidewalks are separated from travel lanes by a buffer strip.

URBAN PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS/ URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Refer to FIGURE 2 for off-street bicycle  facility design


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

• Refer to FIGURE 2 for off-street bicycle  facility design

4.3) RURAL SECTIONS AND FRONTAGE ROAD
Rural Sections Classification & Frontage Summary
(All dimensions in feet)



NUM. LANES ROW SIDEWALK BUFFER ZONE BIKE LANE TRAVEL LANE CURB/ GUTTER MEDIAN/ TURN LN SHOULDER/ EMER. LN
Rural Principal Arterial (RPA)* 4 100 6 None None 12 2 14 10
2 100 10' (Shared Use Path) 3' (adjacent to shared use path) 10' (Shared Use Path) 12 None 16 6' (paved shoulder)
2 100 Part of shoulder None Part of shoulder 12 None 16 13' (suggest paved shoulder)
Rural Minor Arterial (RMS) * 2 80 6 4 5 12 2 14 None
Urban Collector (UCol) 2 80 6 4 5 12 2 14
Rural Major Collector (RCol)** 2 80 5 4 5 12 2 None 10' (Park Ln)
2 80 Part of shoulder None Part of shoulder 12 None None 12' (suggest paved shoulder)
Rural Local (RLoc) *** 2 60 None None None 12 None None 5
2 60 5 4 None Varies 2 None Varies

Frontage Road 2 60 5 4 None 11 2 14 None

* - The Rural Principal Arterial has three variations: one adjacent to urban areas, one with a multi-modal sidepath, and one for outlying, rural areas
** - These rural road sections have variations: one adjacent to urban areas and one for outlying, rural areas
*** - The Rural Local is based on San Juan County road sections. A variation is provided to include sidewalks, parking, and bike lanes.



RURAL PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•This option would be used for RPA adjacent to urban developments.
•Wide Shoulder could be used to accommodate bicyclists.
•When road transitions into a UPA, replace Wide Shoulder with bike lane and buffer elements as shown in UPA section.
•NOTE: the median can be a minimum of 6’ for areas of a corridor that do not require space for turn lanes.

 



URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•This option would be used for RPA that transitions from urban to rural.
•A multi-modal sidepath could be incorporated for a corridor where access control is established.
•Buffer material may be grass, asphalt, or striped.
•Geotechnical analysis and soil conditions must be taken into account.
•NOTE: the median can be a minimum of 4’ for areas of a corridor that do not require space for turn lanes.

RURAL PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS (continued)


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•Shoulder serves as emergency lane (6’ minimum needed).
•Suggest 13’ paved shoulders to function as emergency lane and to accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians.
•Geotechnical analysis and soil conditions must be taken into account.
•NOTE: the median can be a minimum of 6’ for areas of a corridor that do not require space for turn lanes.


RURAL PRINCIPAL ARTERIALS (continued)


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

RURAL MINOR ARTERIALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•This option would be used for RMA adjacent to urban areas.


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•This option would be used for RMA in rural and outlying areas.
•Shoulder must be 6’ minimum.
•Suggest a paved shoulder to accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians.
•Geotechnical analysis & soil conditions must be taken into account.
•NOTE: the median can be a minimum of 4’ for areas of a corridor that do not require space for turn lanes.

RURAL MAJOR COLLECTORS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•Shoulders must be 6’ minimum.
•Suggest a paved shoulder to accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians.
•Geotechnical analysis & soil conditions must be taken into account.


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•This option would be used for RCol adjacent to urban areas.
•Additional space is given to parking lane to reduce ‘door zone’ for bicyclists.

RURAL LOCALS


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•Based on Standard Paved Road Section for San Juan County
•Suggest a paved shoulder for use by bicyclists and pedestrians.
•Geotechnical analysis & soil conditions must be taken into account.


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

•Variation of the Standard Paved Road Section for San Juan County to include sidewalks.

FRONTAGE ROAD


URBAN PRINCIPLE ARTERIALS/URBAN MINOR ARTERIALS

SECTION 3: ROAD CLASSIFICATIONS


3.1) Introduction


The Farmington MPO has developed eight road classifications for arterials and collectors. There are three urban classifications, four rural classifications, and a frontage road. Each classification shall have a specific definition, function, and purpose.

3.2) Urban Road Classifications




DEFINITION FUNCTION PURPOSE CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE

Urban Principal Arterial (UPA) The Urban Principal Arterial provides the greatest mobility for through movements and forms an integrated network without stub connections for long distance, intercity/cross town travel. It shall have designated access points. Mobility with limited access points Serves the major centers of activity in a metropolitan area and serves intra- and inter-regional trips. Provides access to major traffic generators. Piñon Hills Blvd
Urban Minor Arterial (UMA) The Urban Minor Arterial interconnects with and augments the urban principal arterial system. It is intended for trips of moderate lengths. It shall have designated access points with a reduced spacing requirement. Maintain mobility while providing access points Provide intra-community connectivity but ideally should not penetrate identifiable neighborhoods. 20th Street (F)Chaco St (A) E Blanco (B)
Urban Collector (UCol) The Urban Collector distributes trips between the arterial system and the local road network. Access & Mobility for connecting all types of roads Provide land access & traffic circulation for residential and commercial neighborhoods Farmington Ave (F) Mesa Verde (A) W Blanco (B)

3.2) Urban Road Classifications




DEFINITION FUNCTION PURPOSE CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE

Urban Principal Arterial (UPA) The Urban Principal Arterial provides the greatest mobility for through movements and forms an integrated network without stub connections for long distance, intercity/cross town travel. It shall have designated access points. Mobility with limited access points Serves the major centers of activity in a metropolitan area and serves intra- and inter-regional trips. Provides access to major traffic generators. Piñon Hills Blvd











3.3) Rural Road Classifications




DEFINITION FUNCTION PURPOSE CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE

Rural Principal Arterial (RPA) The Rural Principal Arterial provides minimal interference to through movements for long distance trips. It handles a high percentage of heavy commercial vehicles and forms an integrated network without stub endings except where unusual geographic conditions exist. It is part of the critical transportation infrastructure. Mobility with limited access points Provides access to important traffic generators and major cities not served by the Interstate; provides access to inter-modal facilities. CR 350
Rural Minor Arterial (RMA) The Rural Minor Arterial provides a high level of mobility and minimizes interference to through movements. It forms an integrated network without stub endings except where unusual geographic conditions exist. Maintain mobility Provide inter-county access; used for long distance trips. CR 390 CR 3000
Rural Major Collector (RCol) The Rural Major Collector connects urban areas with populations over 5,000 and tends to collect traffic from local roads to rural minor arterials. Maintain mobility while providing access points Serve traffic generators typically of intra-county importance and serves trips between low density residential & commercial areas. CR 3950 CR 6100
Rural Local (RLoc) The Rural Local collects traffic from local roads to rural major collectors and has the lowest traffic volumes. Dual function of maintaining mobility and providing access Serves small population centers and provides access to residences and businesses

3.4) Frontage Road




DEFINITION FUNCTION PURPOSE

Frontage Road A road that provides access to local properties from an arterial. Direct access to properties Separation of mobility and through movement on the main line from accessing property

SECTION 2: ACCESS MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND STANDARDS


2.1) Introduction


The Farmington MPO worked closely with its member entities and the NMDOT to develop access management policies and standards that would apply to all new collectors and arterials in the MPO. The policies offer broad guidelines for the cities and the county to implement when building new roads and, whenever possible, for retrofitting existing roads.

Five general policies were developed, each with supporting standards and objectives. The following road and access policies offer several options for maintaining capacity, reducing conflict points, and improving safety.

2.2) Policies and Standards


POLICY #1 – Establish access management standards to maintain capacity of roadways, improve safety, and minimize the number of access points on arterials and collectors

POLICY #2 – Road classifications for arterials and collectors shall have specific definitions, functions, and purposes. (Section 3)

POLICY #3 – Each road classification shall have a typical road section, standard driveway width and spacing, intersection spacing, corner clearance dimensions, and be in compliance with ADA requirements. (Sections 4-6)

POLICY #4 – All arterial roadways shall have access control using medians. (Section 7)

POLICY #5 – Locate applicable bicycle and pedestrian facilities in a safe and efficient manner on all arterial and collector streets. (Section 8)

2.3) Implementing Access Management


Establishing policies and standards is the primary means for implementing access management in the MPO. Access management is intended to achieve the following:


Objectives
o Ensure coordination and consistency across local planning and development functions and among jurisdictions with regard to access management.
o Support access management through land use planning and organize land uses into activity centers to support local street network development and alternative access.
o Establish and apply a traffic impact analysis process to help ensure access management principles are applied in the planning of new developments.
o In situations where proposed development would not comply with the access management plan, the developer and the entity would work together to mitigate off-site impacts.

Standards
o Adjacent developments along arterials should have interconnected parking lots that encourage internal circulation.
o Consolidate or share adjacent driveways where possible.
o Cross-access easements should be used to reduce the number of driveways accessing the main line as well as the number of short vehicle trips.
o Businesses along rural principal arterials should have access via frontage roads.
o No driveways for residential properties shall have direct access to arterial roads.
o Residential driveways are permitted to access local and collector roads only.
o Promote interior driveways that access property (subdivisions and businesses) from collectors and local roads rather than from the arterial (Figure 2A).
o Locate frontage roads or parallel road facilities 300’ to 500’ from the intersection of the main street it is accessing (Figure 2B).

For non-residential development along new and/or existing facilities, access rights to adjacent parcels through the use of cross-access easements should be required. Cross-access easements connect neighboring properties and consolidate driveways serving more than one property. This allows vehicles to circulate between adjacent businesses without having to re-enter the main roadway and in turn can reduce traffic on the major thoroughfare and improve safety.


Joint access, or shared driveways, should also be used to connect major developments where highway frontage has been subdivided into smaller lots. Joint access allows more intensive development of non-residential corridors while maintaining traffic operations and safe and convenient access to businesses. Development standards will follow the local development codes of the governing body.


The purpose of a commercial frontage road or a parallel road facility is to provide access to commercial and mixed use facilities located along and adjacent to existing and proposed arterial streets and limited access highways. It provides separation between mobility and access. All proposed commercial frontage roads shall be aligned parallel and adjacent to the existing right-of-way of either the arterial street or limited access highway (Figure 2B).


Providing a parallel road facility will:


(a) Ensure that sidewalks near individual development are provided to connect with the public sidewalk system.
(b) Ensure safe access for pedestrians by reducing conflict points with vehicles.


All commercial frontage roads or parallel road facilities providing access to lots of record shall be constructed in accordance with the standards contained in the access management plan.


All uses with frontage along arterials and collectors shall follow the driveway spacing requirements as shown in Table 5-2. Corner clearance access shall be in accordance with the standards shown in Table 6-1.


Separation of frontage road.
Figure 2A - Interior access to subdivision & business


Separation of frontage road.

Figure 2B - Separation of frontage road on a parallel road facility from main line.

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT


SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO ACCESS MANAGEMENT

1.1) Definition of Access Management


Access management involves the spacing and location of driveways, placement of median openings, and the interconnectivity of road classifications in order to maintain the access and mobility function of collectors and arterials. By managing access to adjacent land uses on these roadways, capacity and function can be preserved and a reduction in conflict points can occur.

1.2) Purpose and Need


There are critical corridors in the MPO that have existing access control problems. The purpose of the access standards will be to maintain the capacity of roadways while promoting safety by reducing the number of conflict points along a corridor. Access standards should preserve the function of the roadway. As a result, the need for new roadways may be reduced because existing infrastructure maintains capacity to handle road volumes. Full descriptions regarding the definition, function, and purpose of each road classification in the Farmington MPO are shown in Section 3.

For highways and arterials, the number of driveways to businesses and intersections with cross streets should be kept to a minimum in order to maintain a certain degree of mobility. With the understanding that businesses and public venues require driveways for access, it will be important to regulate the number and the spacing of access points to maintain mobility. Too many driveways increase conflict points along a corridor. As a result, the road experiences delay which tends to encourage the development of new facilities to solve the problem. Access management is needed to create a systematic approach for road access and increasing public safety.

Whenever possible, access should use collector or local streets and frontage roads. This helps achieve a separation between access and mobility.

1.3) Benefits of Access Management


Corridors that have limited access have fewer accidents and maintain the capacity intended for the roadway. Piñon Hills Blvd is the best example of access management in the MPO. Through this 6.3 mile corridor, there are eight cross street intersections (5 signalized and 3 unsignalized) and a few driveway access points. Traffic signals are placed at least a half-mile apart. On Piñon Hills Blvd, drivers have a better understanding as to where other vehicles will be making turns onto or off the road.

Medians that direct turn movements for one direction of travel is another form of access management. Along East Main St in Farmington, there are several areas where turn lanes within the median only allow left turn movements for one direction of travel. Medians also determine access points. In conjunction with right-in/right-out turns, medians can block certain turn movements and create partial access intersections.

Intersection Driveways Spacing

Beginning in 2008, NMDOT will reconstruct US 64 from Farmington to Bloomfield through several phases. Access management will be fully implemented through the corridor by means of consolidating driveways, improving median designs, building frontage roads, and adding signalized intersections.

Access management is beneficial to pedestrians and bicyclists as well. With fewer curb cuts and driveways, there are less conflicts points between pedestrians and turning vehicles. Long stretches between intersections and driveways create unimpeded pedestrian and bicycle networks which improve safety and can encourage people to use these corridors for alternative modes of transportation.

1.4) Impacts Due to a Lack of Access Management


It is commonly known that the more access points along a corridor the higher the chance a crash may occur. Strip commercial development will typically have two or three driveways within a one block stretch. An example of this type of development can be found on Main St or 20th St in Farmington. On NM 516 and US 64, there are many businesses that have “free” access to the highways, meaning there are no curb cuts or designated driveways for access. Motorists are allowed to enter and exit these highways anywhere in front of the business causing unpredictable driving patterns and circulation.

In a similar way, two-way left turn lanes (TWLTL) allow for “free” turn movements. Drivers often need to maneuver around stopped cars to make left turns to their specific driveway. It becomes difficult to tell which driveway or cross street a motorist is trying to access. Often times, drivers will also use the TWLTL as an acceleration lane or wait in the lane for a gap in traffic flow. Many of these situations create conditions that increase the chances of sideswipes and collisions. Furthermore, the lack of access control poses dangerous situations for pedestrians and bicyclists. Examples of streets with a lack of access control are found on Apache, 20th St, and US 64.

Excessive Curb Cuts

1.5) Access Management Stakeholders


To assist in the development of the access management plan, the MPO worked cooperatively with a select group of stakeholders who reviewed work products and assisted with the development of the access management policies and standards described later in this document. The list of stakeholders included:

• City of Farmington Planning and Engineering staff
• City of Aztec Planning and Public Works staff
• City of Bloomfield Planning and Public Works staff
• San Juan County Community Development and Public Works staff
• NMDOT Planning and District 5 staff
• San Juan County Homebuilders Association

In addition, the MPO Technical Committee consistently worked with MPO staff to develop the access management plan. The Policy Committee reviewed the policies and standards. Local planning/zoning boards and councils/commissions received presentations on the plan’s development.









1.6) Ten Principles of Access Management


The Transportation Research Board (TRB), a national organization that distributes documents on transportation, recommends ten principles that should be followed when implementing access management:

1. Provide a specialized road system
2. Limit direct access to major roadways
3. Promote intersection hierarchy
4. Locate signals to favor through movement
5. Preserve the functional area of interchanges
6. Limit the number of conflict points
7. Separate conflict areas
8. Remove turning vehicles from through-traffic lanes
9. Use non-traversable medians to manage left-turn movements
10. Provide a supporting street and circulation system

The FMPO has followed these guidelines where applicable throughout development of the access management plan. The guidelines influenced the policies and standards that are described in the following sections.



1.7) Goals of the Access Management Plan


The intention will be to have the MPO Policy Committee and the local government entities adopt regional policies and standards for roadway access for roads classified as collectors and arterials in the MPO area. Adoption will ensure access management is consistent among the four local governments.

These policies and standards will be applicable to new roads and they should also be implemented wherever feasible as existing roads are retrofitted or reconstructed. Access management policies and standards will outline acceptable intersection spacing, driveway spacing, median openings, corner clearance, and bicycle/pedestrian access for these road classifications. The standards would be enforced at the plat review stage in order to achieve the goals and objectives related to access management.

The following is a non-inclusive list of goals that the adopted access management plan is expected to accomplish:

A) Promote the safety, maintain the capacity, and preserve the functionality of arterials and collectors in the MPO area
B) Ensure that new developments follow the adopted driveway spacing and access policies
C) Control access in order to improve safety for pedestrians and bicyclists who use the corridor
D) Prioritize areas in the MPO where access management should be implemented as a means to improve safety or control turn movements
E) Provide parallel road facilities adjacent to arterials wherever possible to reduce the number of access points and to ensure safe pedestrian facilities along arterial roads
F) Establish procedures for handling variances and/or exceptions to adopted policies and rules
G) Review the access management plan at least every three years to ensure its applicability to the existing road environment


Access Management Plan